Born in 1894 in Novogorgyevsk, Ukraine.
In 1912 he received a scholarship to the Academy of Art in Odessa, where he met Boris Schatz, who invited him to immigrate to Israel and study at the "Bezalel" Academy of Art, founded by Litvinovsky, who accepted Schatz's invitation, but soon returned to Russia and began his studies at the Art Academy in Petrograd.
In 1919 he returned to Israel accompanied by his wife Liza. The couple settled in Jerusalem and from there Litvinovsky's path flourished.
From 1924 to 1928 his works were exhibited at the "Ohel" Theater in Tel Aviv and at the Tower of David in Jerusalem. In 1926 he designed the backdrop of the play "The Dybbuk" which was performed at HaBimah.
Litvinovsky joined the "Egged" organization of modern artists, including artists such as Arie Lubin, Avraham Melnikov, Tziona Tagger, Hanna Orloff, Yosef Zaritsky, Haim Gliksberg, Reuven Rubin, Aryeh Eluel and Nahum Gutman. The group held an exhibition in 1929 in an apartment on Allenby Street opposite Mugrabi Cinema. Another exhibition in which he participated was of modern art, was presented in 1930 at the Tel Aviv Museum and was called "The Beginning of Modernism in Israeli Painting 1920 – 1930".
In the 1930s Litvinovsky spent much time in Paris and was influenced by the works of Henri Matisse, Picasso and the Jewish painters of the school of Paris. His affection for Cezanne is evident in his painting style and the color scheme he used.
In 1935 he held his first solo exhibition of his works at Bezalel. At the end of this period he moved with his family and lived in cooperation with the artist Moshe Mokady and the two established a painting studio together.
In 1960 there was an exhibition at the Helena Rubinstein Pavilion, which included 180 works of 30 years of creativity.
Litvinovsky's work has been influenced by various trends and his most famous works are portraits of President John F. Kennedy, Prime Minister Golda Meir, Pinchas Sapir, Hannah Rovina and others.
Litvinovsky was the winner of the Dizengoff Prize for 1939, won the Jerusalem Prize for 1970 and was awarded the Israel Prize for Painting in 1980.
He passed away in 1985.
In 1986, on the first anniversary of his death, an exhibition of his works was held in the Knesset building.
In 2010, the exhibition "Portrait and Book" was held in the library of Bar-Ilan University. The exhibition included portraits of rabbis by Litvinovsky's brush and a display of books written by the rabbis he painted.
His works are found in many important collections and museums in Israel and abroad.